Maps and Notes    2014

Lower Manhattan and the Harbor
Fronts on Wall Street and the Battery
Riding Staten Island Ferry


Fronts on Wall Street and the Battery


Pine Street
Manhattan, August 8, 2007

Looking northwest on Pearl Street between Pine and Cedar Streets, Financial District:

The marble entrance at 181 Pearl Street was originally for the Cities Service Building (1932), which later became the headquarters for the American International Group (AIG) and then 60 Wall Tower. Today, the 66-story building is transforming once again as 70 Pine Street, the ultra luxury high-rise scheduled to open in 2015. The residential conversion underway by Rose Associates includes 644 leased units and 132 extended stay units plus 35,000 square feet of retail space at street level. The Captain's Ketch (detail represented at center), a traditional Wall Street seafood establishment and long standing tenant is moving out to make way for a new high-end bistro. The conversion began after the building was landmarked in 2011 and the construction costs are projected at $550 million.

The top three floors of the building will continue to house the Panorama Club with its glassed-in observatory and outdoor terrace, famous for its octagonal shape and views of Lower Manhattan and the Harbor. The main entrances and tiered window treatments at several levels are detailed with the original stainless steel ornamentation (upper left corner) favored by the architects, Clinton & Russell and Holton & George, who were inspired by the Art Deco styling of the Chrysler Building (1930).


Irish Hunger Memorial
Manhattan, May 21, 2008

Looking northwest from the corner of North End Avenue and Vesey Street, Battery Park City:

The Irish Hunger Memorial (2002) was constructed with earth samples and plants from West Ireland and stones collected from every county in Ireland. The artist Brian Tolle and landscape architect Gail Wittwer-Laird wanted to authenticate the site chosen to build the memorial, which was already a plot on landfill, as is the rest of Battery Park City. The BPC landfill was resourced from the construction sites of the first World Trade Center (1972-73). The excavated dirt, rock and debris were deposited and engineered along the Hudson's edge to expand the Lower Manhattan shoreline for development.

The half-acre size of the memorial is significant in that it recalls the 1847 Irish Poor Law, which denied relief to landowners who owned plots of land larger than a half-acre. The memorial commemorates the Great Irish Famine (1845-52) that devastated Ireland's population with disease and starvation, killing at least one million and forcing another million to leave the country.


Elevated Acre
Manhattan, May 17, 2008

Looking east from inside the plaza on 55 Water Street between Coenties Slip and Old Slip, Financial District:

The Elevated Acre looks out directly onto the East River from its 40-foot perch above the FDR Drive, South Street and a parking garage. The Brooklyn Bridge (1883) is to the east (background, right). The one-acre plaza was first conceived as a protected park in the Financial District surrounded by buildings on all sides except for its eastern exposure. It was built in 1972 as an adjacent component of 55 Water Street (also 1972), a 53-story office building known for its advanced engineering systems, secure technologies and infrastructure backups. An allowance was made at the time, to the advantage of the developers that relaxed the downtown zoning regulations limiting the size of new office buildings. With the inclusion of public space in the overall architectural plan, a significant increase was granted in the square footage allowed for 55 Water Street. There were no stipulations given for the quality or function of the added pubic space. It just had to be part of the plan. As a park, the Elevated Acre was minimally developed and underutilized until 2004, when it was revamped for $7 million by Ken Smith, landscape architect, with Rogers Marvel, architects. Their new design for a sustainable park built on top of a structure, foreshadowed others yet to come like the High Line (2009) on the Westside and the East River Waterfront Esplanade at Pier 15 (2011) initiated by Mayor Bloomberg (see: Fronts on Wall Street and the Battery, South Street I).

The First Precinct Police Station (1909-11) was in operation until 1973, just one year after 55 Water Street and the original Elevated Acre were built. It remained unoccupied after that for two decades. A restoration of the building began as Mayor Giuliani took office, but it was not complete until the end of his term. The station reopened in 2001 as the New York City Police Museum (lower left).


South Street I
Manhattan, August 9, 2007

Looking east from the intersection of Wall and South Streets, Financial District.

South Street II
Manhattan, August 2, 2007

Looking east from Peck Slip, between Front and South Streets, Financial District:

The bridge towers in I (background, right to left) belong to the Brooklyn Bridge (1870-1883) and the Manhattan Bridge (1901-12). The sailing masts (center left) belong to two historical ships that are docked indefinitely at the South Street Seaport Maritime Museum, Pier 15. They are the Wavertree (1885) and the Peking (1911). Today, this view includes a section of the new East River Waterfront Esplanade (ERWE) in the foreground area. Phase I of the Esplanade project opened in 2011 between Piers 11 and 15. The length of the entire Esplanade will run two miles from the Battery Maritime Building at South Ferry (originally the Municipal Ferry Pier, 1909 restored 2005) to Pier 35 at Montgomery Street, near the Williamsburg Bridge (1896-1903). As part of Mayor Bloomberg's "Vision for a 21st Century Lower Manhattan" and his "necklace of parks" development of Manhattan's waterfront space, the ERWE follows suit with new walkways and bikeways, benches and plantings on raised platforms, and extended piers along the East River. The Esplanade was completely flooded during Hurricane Sandy in 2012, but the new drain grids were highly effective and the salt resistant plants survived, keeping damage to a minimum. The Esplanade served as a buffer zone against the East River swells that threatened South Street.

Peck Slip is a cobblestone-parking plaza that once was a water inlet for ship fitting in the 18th century. Before that it was a swamp area intermittently submerged by the ongoing river tides. Using a combined method of dredging and building, the slips were made in swampy areas by gradually raising the inlet contours during low tides to take in more water when the high tides returned. As the ship works industries declined in the middle of the 19th century, the slips were filled back in to rebuild the landmass of the shoreline for new industries, like electrical generation and waste management. The nearby Pearl Street Station of the Edison Illuminating Company opened in 1882 as the first central operating electric plant in the nation. Unfortunately, it burned down in 1890. Several generations of New York City electric plants and 84 years later, the Con Edison Substation (1974) II was built at the intersection of Peck Slip and Front Street, next door to the old Jasper Ward House (1847, not shown). The trompe l'oeil mural titled "Peck Slip Arcade" (1978) II center, was commissioned by Con Edison from the artist Richard Hass for the south side of the substation. The mural is 45 feet tall by 90 feet wide, oil on brick, and was produced by Seaboard Outdoor Advertising of New York. In 2011, construction began at Peck Slip to rebuild its underground utility infrastructure and turn the above ground parking area into a public park by 2014.


Hanover Street
Manhattan, July 24, 2007

Looking south from the corner of Wall and Hanover Streets, Financial District:

The Wall and Hanover Building (1928) was the original headquarters for the merchant bank Brown Brothers and Company, which became Brown Bothers Harriman and Company in 1931. In 2003-04, the 37-story building was converted to a residential rental with 476 units. The new management company Metro Loft, renamed the building, The Crest. The Hanover Street entrances are for the United States Post Office (not shown) and Thomas PINK Ltd of Jermyn Street London (center), a store for men's and women's dress shirts.


Lower Broadway
Manhattan, November 20, 2012

Looking northwest at 47 Broadway between Exchange Place and Morris Street, Financial District:

The entrance for El Toro-Tees SOUVENIRS.


Beaver Street
Manhattan, May 29, 2011

Looking south at 48 Beaver Street between Williams and Broad Streets, Financial District:

The shop window for Best Barber & Shoe Repair & Shine.


Pearl Street
Manhattan, January 6, 2008 (left)
Manhattan, May 26, 2008 (right)

Looking northwest from Pearl Street between Fletcher and Platt Streets, Financial District:

211 Pearl Street (1831) was originally a Counting House for William Colgate's operations, which dominated the soap manufacturing business and successfully carried the family's name with household products for generations and still does. The house was designed in part, as a typical 19th century Greek revival with pillars at the entrance and colonial type brickwork on the upper floors. It was atypical of the revivalist style however, in that it had a flat roofline instead of a triangular pediment and therefore resembled a New York tenement dwelling of the same era. The pillars were removed after Rockrose Development Corporation quietly acquired the building (circa 2002) and turned the street entrance into a ramp for an underground parking garage. The building was carefully dismantled after that except for its façade and the 10-foot deep structure temporarily attached to it for support (left). Since 2008, Rockrose has quickly built a complex of residential structures around and adjoining the remaining façade of 211 Pearl Street (right) comprised of 101 Maiden Lane (on its south side) and 2 Gold Street (on its west side). In demolition and conservation terms this process is called a "façadacide", where an exterior section is saved during a take down and reused as a false veneer on a new structure to complete the effect of a 3-dimensional trompe l'oeil.

In the wake of 9/11, developers like Rockrose received huge loans from New York State in the form of Liberty Bonds to encourage new construction in Lower Manhattan. In the case of 211 Pearl Street, Rockrose was required to submit its development plans to an historical review panel in order to secure its bonds and get permission to demolish the existing structure. A group of influential people tried to save the building for its historical significance and managed to at least get it nominated for the National Register of Historic Places. More to the point, it was the State Historic Preservation Office that actually controlled the bonds (worth $170 million to Rockrose) and in their own interest they pressured Rockrose to a compromise, whereby the bonds would only be guaranteed if Rockrose agreed to preserve the façade. The flat roofline of the original house made it easy for Rockrose to align it with the front of its new addition facing Pearl Street, now 101 Maiden Lane (right) left side. An unforeseen problem arose when Hurricane Sandy (2012) completely flooded the underground parking garage. Today, there is a large flood proof door for the garage with perimeter gasket seals, much like the watertight hatches and drop down ramps on marine vessels.

The Pearl Diner (circa 1962) was temporarily closed after Hurricane Sandy, but is back in operation now. The authentic New York diner with its iconic neon sign (left & right) left sides, is located directly across the street from what remained and is now transformed, of the Colgate Counting House.


Exchange Place, Doors I
Manhattan, July 31, 2007

Looking west from Hanover Street between Beaver Street and Exchange Place, Financial District.

Exchange Place, Doors II
Manhattan, May 31, 2011 (left)
Manhattan, May 31, 2011 (right)

Looking south from the corner of Exchange Place and William Street, Financial District:

20 Exchange Place was originally the City Bank-Farmers Trust Building (1930-31). It was designed as the company headquarters for the merger of the National City Bank of New York and the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company. The building changed hands in 1956, then 1979, and became an Art Deco landmark in 1996, giving recognition to its elaborate interiors of marble and bronze. Forty-five types of marble were used to decorate its hallways.

The exterior doors I and II, are made of nickel silver alloy, which is highly reflective when buffed to a shine II (right). The British sculptor David Evans (1893-1959) was commissioned by architects Cross & Cross, to detail the doors with images depicting the modes of modern transport, such as the steam locomotive II (left) and the ocean liner II (right).


Blower Building, Battery Tunnel I
Manhattan, May 26, 2008

Looking northeast from Battery Place between Greenwich and Washington Streets, the Battery.

Parking Garage, Battery Tunnel II
Manhattan, March 24, 1998

Looking northeast from the pedestrian bridge over the entrance ramp to the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel, at Morris Street between Washington Street and Trinity Place, Financial District:

The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel (1940-50) now the Governor Hugh L. Carey Tunnel, is the longest and most complex of New York City's tunnels. There are two independent ventilating structures that deliver fresh air and remove exhaust. One is in Red Hook, Brooklyn, and the other is on the northeast edge of Governors Island, offshore. In Manhattan there is the Blower Building I that connects with an underwater exhaust structure in the Harbor. Just north of the Blower Building is the Battery Parking Garage II. Together these structures form the plaza for the Manhattan side of the tunnel. It took ten long years to finish the tunnel project, but most of it was built in significantly less time. The delays were caused by supply shortages of iron, steel and other materials during World War II. When construction resumed in 1946, the politics surrounding the project had changed as Robert Moses took control of it with the power invested in him through the newly merged Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. Moses had originally preferred another bridge crossing instead of a tunnel and he made the mistake of firing the tunnel's engineer Ole Singstad, who had successfully designed all the previous tunnels in New York. He replaced Singstad with Ralph Smillie, whose design modifications failed, and the tunnel was finally completed according to Singstad's plans anyway.

The metal relief sculptures on the south side of the Blower Building I were saved from the exterior of the New York Coliseum (1956) before it was demolished in 2000 to make way for the Time Warner Center at Columbus Circle. Each relief is 10-feet square and weighs 1,500 pounds. There are four reliefs in all, made by sculptor Paul Manship (1885-1966) who is best known for his gilded bronze statue of Prometheus at Rockefeller Center. The figures and emblems on the reliefs depict the Seal of the City of New York I right, the Seal of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority I center, the Seal of the State of New York (hidden behind the tree) I left, and the Seal of the United States, which is on display inside the Blower Building. Copies of two reliefs, the Seal of the City of New York and the Seal of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, are also on the Battery Parking Garage II bottom left. The parking garage was restored in 2002-03.

In 2012, the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel was badly flooded by Hurricane Sandy. It took two weeks to remove the 86 million gallons of water that completely filled it to the ceiling.

The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center (1972-73) are in II upper left.


Custom House, Federal Hall, Composite
Manhattan, May 30, 2008 (left)
Manhattan, May 28, 2011 (right)

Looking south (reversed) from the plaza at Bowling Green, intersection of Broadway and Battery Place between State and Whitehall Streets (left). Looking east from the corner of Broad and Wall Streets (right), Financial District:

The Federal Hall of mid 19th century (1842) on Wall Street was actually an earlier building for the United States Custom House before the Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House was built (1902-07) at Bowling Green. The Hall replaced Old Federal Hall (1700, demolished 1812) where George Washington gave his inaugural address in 1789. The Hall was rededicated as Federal Hall National Memorial in 1939. The Alexander Hamilton Custom House changed its municipal functions over the last century too. It now houses the National Museum of the American Indian, which moved downtown from its former location at Audubon Terrace, plus the Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York and the National Archives at New York City.

The architect Cass Gilbert commissioned Daniel Chester French to produce four figure sculptures depicting the "Continents" for the entrance to the Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House. Evenly spaced from east to west along the front steps and facing Bowling Green plaza are - Asia, America Composite left (reversed), Europe and Africa (all 1903-07). Adolph Alexander Weinman assisted Daniel Chester French with "Continents" at the same time that he, Weinman, was producing his "Day and Night" (1906) series of four figure sculptures for the main portico entrances to Penn Station (1905-10). Weinman's model for "Day and Night" was the young Audrey Marie Munson at age 15. Weinman introduced Munson to Daniel French, who used her as his model for the Melvin Brothers Civil War Memorial (1906-08) in Concord, Massachusetts, and its later replica titled "Mourning Victory" (1915, with Munson's arms reversed) at the Metropolitan Museum. In the last two years of his work on "Continents", Daniel French adopted Munson's youthful facial features to the older, more powerful female figures of his imagination, and transformed their physiognomies to represent four female ethnic types from the world's continents. In this regard, Audrey Munson was the muse for what otherwise appeared to be several models. For more on Audrey Marie Munson (see: Downtown Crossings, Lower East Side and Chinatown, Municipal Building Vertical, Civic Fame).

James Edward Kelly was a sculptor and a contemporary of Daniel Chester French. His most important works depicted events from America's early wars and its military heroes. His skill as an illustrator afforded him several relief sculpture commissions, as it was popular at the time to display patriotic themes in commemorative plaques to teach the public of their history. His bronze relief of George Washington in Prayer at Valley Forge (1904) Composite right, was added to the eastern step wall of Federal Hall (same building as Federal Hall National Memorial) when the United States Custom House moved from Wall Street to Bowling Green.


Broad Street
Manhattan, May 29, 2011

Looking west at the entrance to 60 Broad Street between Beaver Street and Exchange Place, Financial District:

The Marinus Willett Tablet (1892) was commissioned by the Society of the Sons of the Revolution (founded 1876) as one of a handful of bronze plaques they distributed around the city to educate the public about the American Revolution. The credo of the Sons of the Revolution was to memorialize the patriotic spirit of the revolutionaries who brought independence to America:

To perpetuate the memory of the men, who in the military, naval and civil service of the Colonies and of the Continental Congress by their acts or counsel, achieved the Independence of the Country, and to further the proper celebration of the anniversaries of the birthday of Washington, and of prominent events connected with the War of the Revolution; to collect and secure for preservation the rolls, records, and other documents relating to that period; to inspire the members of the Society with the patriotic spirit of the forefathers; to promote the feeling of friendship among them.

After the revolution Marinus Willett became Sheriff of New York, Mayor of New York and President of the Electoral College. But, his wartime leadership as an Officer in the New York Militia was brilliantly marked by the event of a single day, wherein he captured and secured a large cache of British muskets that enabled his own poorly armed forces to defend themselves in their fight for New York. Engraved on the Broad Street plaque is the dedication by the Sons of the Revolution:


NOV, 1892

Marinus Willett
Born, July, 1748
Died, Aug, 1830

Officer of New York Militia 1775-78,
Sheriff of New York 1784-92,
Mayor of New York 1807-08,
President of Electoral College 1824

Committee of the Society of the Sons of the Revolution 1892
Daniel Butterworth, Floyd Clarkson, Morgan Dix, John Austin Stevens, David Wolf Bishop


World War II, East Coast Memorial
Manhattan, May 28, 2008

Looking northeast from the Waterfront Promenade, Battery Park:

The East Coast Memorial (1960) is dedicated to the sailors, soldiers, pilots, coast guard and merchant marines of the U.S. Armed Forces who perished in the coastal Atlantic waters of the United States during World War II. The 4,609 names of the remembered are inscribed in the 19-foot tall granite slabs with their military positions, ranks, organizations and home states. The memorial was dedicated by President John F. Kennedy on May 23, 1963 with the following inscription:


The American Battle Monuments Commission restored the monument after 9/11 in December 2001.


Korean War Memorial I
Manhattan, May 23, 2008

Looking east from inside the Gardens of Remembrance, Battery Park.

Korean War Memorial II
Hudson County, August 4, 2008

Looking south from inside Morris Canal Park at the end of Washington Street, Jersey City:

The Universal Soldier (1991) I by artist Mac Adams is a 15-foot tall sundial obelisk made of polished granite. On July 27 at 10:00am the sun shines through the cutout figure at an angle that aligns itself with the Statue of Liberty (1886). The date and time coincides exactly with the moment the Korean War ended in 1953. The monument is a memorial to the 115,874 soldiers of the United Nations Forces that died in the Korean War (1950-53).

The Standard Oil Building at 26 Broadway (1921-28) I background, was one of the first buildings in Lower Manhattan to comply with the 1916 Building Zone Resolution requiring setbacks on tall buildings to allow more sunlight and fresh air to reach the lower floors and streets. The building's history began in 1885 with just ten floors. Six floors were added in 1895. During the 1920s John D. Rockefeller (founder of Standard Oil) completely redesigned the building with architect Thomas Hastings of Carrère and Hastings. Their inspiration for the receding pyramid on top of the thirty-first floor came from the Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus, in present day Turkey. By 1947, Standard Oil (of New Jersey) became Esso and moved out of 26 Broadway into their new headquarters at 75 Rockefeller Plaza.

The Hudson County Korean War Memorial (2002) II was initiated and planned by the Civil and Mechanical Engineering Departments of Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken. The historical Communipaw Terminal for the Central Railroad of New Jersey (1889) II background, is now the restored visitor's center and ferry terminal for Ellis and Liberty Islands. The terminal was originally built to handle the transportation needs of the overwhelming number of immigrants being processed on Ellis Island at the turn of the century. From 1890 to 1915, over 10 million people made connections from Ellis Island through the terminal by ferry, rail and bus to other destinations in the United States. The name Communipaw comes from the Algonquian language used by the Native American Lenape Tribe to mean "big landing place at the side of a river".


Vietnam Veterans Memorial
Manhattan, January 3, 2011

Looking southwest from inside the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Plaza at Coenties Slip between FDR Drive and Water Street, Financial District:

Coenties Slip was filled in with landfill in 1835 and made into a public park 49 years later. It was named Jeannette Park in honor of the naval steamer Jeannette, which was damaged and abandoned in arctic sea ice during the Arctic Expedition of 1879-1881. In the 1940s Robert Moses turned the park into a recreational playground with handball courts. In 1972 the park was updated with an amphitheater and a fountain as part of the 55 Water Street office complex that included the Elevated Acre (see: Fronts on Wall Street and the Battery, Elevated Acre). Finally in 1985, Mayor Koch succeeded in turning the park into a memorial for the 250,000 veterans from New York City who served in the Vietnam War and the 1,741 soldiers who perished. The park was renovated for $7 million by Mayor Giuliani following the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Center.

A commemorative plaque on one of the walls recalls the sacrifice of a teenage soldier from Brooklyn:

The Youngest American Serviceman
Killed in Action in the Vietnam War

Private First Class Dan Bullock was fourteen
years old when he altered his birth certificate
in order to join the United States Marine Corps.
He was killed at the age of fifteen while
Serving his country in the Vietnam War.

Semper Fi

Company F
2nd Battalion, 5th Marines
1st Marine Division (Rein) FMF
FPO San Francisco, California 96602

                                                                                                                                       June 11, 1969

Mr. and Mrs. B. Bullock
279 Lee Avenue
Brooklyn, NY 11206

Dear Mr. and Mrs. Bullock:

The recent death of your son, Private First Class Dan Bullock, U.S. Marine Corps, on
June 7, 1969, at An Hoa Combat Base, Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam, is a
source of great sorrow to me and all the members of Company F. Please accept our deep-
est sympathy in your bereavement.

Dan was assigned as a Rifleman in the Second Platoon of Company F. During the early
morning hours on June 7, Company F was in night defensive positions on the perimeter of
the An Hoa Combat Base. An assault of the lines by North Vietnamese Soldiers started
at approximately 1:00 a.m. Dan immediately realized that the attack was stronger than
usual and that the ammunition supply was becoming depleted. He rushed to get more am-
munition for his unit. He constantly exposed himself to the enemy fire in order to keep
the company supplied with the ammunition needed to hold off the attack. As the attack
pressed on, Dan again went to get more ammunition when he was mortally wounded by a
burst of enemy small arms and died instantly at approximately 1:50 a.m.

It may comfort you to know that Dan received the ministrations of his faith by Lieutenenant
Commander R.W. Harper, Chaplain, U. S. Navy. Also, a Memorial Service was held on
June 8, allowing all of his friends to pay a last tribute to him.

Dan was one of the finest Marines I have ever known, and he was well liked and admired
by everyone who knew him. He took pride in doing every job well and constantly displayed
those qualities of eagerness and self-reliance that gained him the respect he well de-
served. Although I realize words can do little to console you, I hope the knowledge
that we share in your sorrow will, in some measure, alleviate the suffering caused by
your great loss.

Dan's personal effects have been prepared for shipment and will be forwarded to you in
the near future.

In the difficult days ahead, please do not hesitate to write me.

                                                                                                         Sincerely yours,

                                                                                                         R.H. Kingrey
                                                                                                         Captain, U.S. Marine Corps


New York City Police Memorial
Manhattan, May 23, 2008

Looking northwest from North Cove at the intersection of Liberty Street and South End Avenue, Battery Park City:

The New York City Police Memorial (1997) by architect Stewart B. Crawford (center). The Goldman Sachs Tower (2004) by architects César Pelli and Associates at Exchange Place in Jersey City (top).

In Memoriam
Dedicated to the memory of those
Members of the Police Department
who lost their lives in service to the
people of the City of New York.

The ranks, names and dates of the deceased are inscribed in the memorial wall. Beginning with Patrolman John Loughman, Jan. 27, 1908 and ending (as of 7/21/13) with Detective Peter J. Figoski, Dec. 12, 2011. Among those yet to be added to the wall are Detective Alick Herrmann, Dec. 23, 2011; Lieutenant Christopher M. Pupo, Jun. 23, 2012; Sergeant Garrett Danza, Jul. 11, 2012; Captain Dennis Morales, Jul. 27, 2012; Detective Traci Tack-Czajkowski, Jan. 15, 2013; Sergeant Patrick Divers, Feb. 3, 2013; Sergeant Alan Lam, Feb. 9, 2013; Petty Officer Nicholas G. Finelli, Jun. 8, 2013; Petty Officer Frank Pitone, Aug. 11, 2013; and continuing ...


Construction Screen, 9/11 Memorial
Manhattan, October 24, 2011

Looking northeast from Liberty Street between Greenwich Street and Trinity Place, Financial District:

The construction site for Tower Four of the World Trade Center (2013) at 150 Greenwich Street. The building's website advertises its design aesthetics and energy efficient advantages at:

4 World Trade Center is the most advanced office building of the 21st Century. Designed by Pritzker-prize winning architect Fumihiko Maki, this green building features natural light, fresh air and spectacular views. Located at the heart of the new Downtown, 4 World Trade Center offers direct access to virtually every city subway and some of the best new shops and restaurants in New York.

Floor-to-ceiling ultra-clear glass brings in more natural light than any other building in New York City. The building's occupants control their own climate and breathe fresh air drawn from the top of the tower and filtered to the highest standards. This creates a better work environment and reduces energy costs.

The building was designed with open and efficient floor plates to allow tenants to create the ideal work environment for their business today and in the future. Column-free corners and 80-foot perimeter column spans enhance design options, increase the amount of natural light, and offer uninterrupted views from every window.

Sustainable design reduces the building's carbon footprint, saves energy and water and contributes to the highest-quality work environment. Preserving natural resources is a priority everyone can agree on.

The construction screen (center) is an imagined facsimile of a hybrid rendition of both the North and South pools of the 9/11 Memorial. The names shown are fictitious.


The Bosque, Battery Conservancy, I
Manhattan, July 14, 2013

Looking northeast from inside the Gardens of Remembrance, Battery Park.

The Bosque, Battery Conservancy, II
Manhattan, July 23, 2013

Looking southwest from inside the Lawn, Battery Park.

Playspace, Battery Conservancy, Composite
Manhattan, July 30, 2013 (left)
Manhattan, July 30, 2013 (right)

Looking south from outside the Playground (left) and north from inside the Playground (right), Battery Park:

The Battery Conservancy was founded by Warrie Price in 1994 as a not-for-profit corporation with a mission to restore and modernize the Battery's landscape while raising new awareness of its cultural and historical heritage. In partnership with city, state and federal agencies plus donations from public and private groups, the Conservancy has raised over $118 million to finance its educational programs and rebuild the landscape architecture of the park for the future. The biggest set back for the Conservancy was the unexpected damage caused by Hurricane Sandy in 2012, when most of the park was submerged under water and the Battery Tunnel and South Ferry Station were completely flooded.

The gardens meander under the shade of London Plane trees in the Bosque I. There are 140 London Plane trees in the Bosque – a species favored for coastal urban climates because of its resilience in wet conditions and resistance to air pollution (see: Lower Manhattan and the Harbor, Riding Staten Island Ferry, Liberty Island I). The Bosque was funded with an $8.5 million grant from the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation in 2003-05. The trees survived the winds of Hurricane Sandy in 2012, but the plants and grasses were severely damaged by the flooding. One World Trade Center (2006-14) is in the background, right of center (see: Riding Staten Island Ferry, Guy V. Molinari, Harbor Skyline II).

In 2010, eight students from the Millennium High School Environmental Club proposed the idea of growing a vegetable garden in Battery Park as an outdoor classroom project. The Battery Conservancy promoted their idea and helped the students plant a one-acre organic farm that would be accessible to the public and tended by volunteers to provide fresh produce for the community. The Urban Farm is surrounded by a fence of 5,000 bamboo poles II donated by artists Mike and Doug Starn from their 2010 Art Roof Garden installation at the Metropolitan Museum, "Big Bambú: You Can't, You Don't, and You Won't Stop." The farm was drowned by Hurricane Sandy and replanted in spring 2013. The resulting salt contamination of the soil from seawater is being studied.

A one-acre playground to the south and west of the Urban Farm has been used as a maintenance facility and an outdoor storage area for displaced monuments since Hurricane Sandy. Behind fences, the half figure of Giovanni da Verrazzano in bronze (1909) by Ettore Ximenes is covered in plastic Composite left, while its granite pedestal stands uncovered in the middle of Composite right. The base to this pedestal is on the ground to the far left in Composite left, and again to the far right in Composite right. The female allegorical figure from the monument's front side is stored in a wooden crate at the center of Composite left, behind the covered Verrazzano. Additionally, the base for the Coast Guard Memorial (1955) by Norman Millet Thomas is to the far right and on top of the Verrazzano base in Composite right. The actual three-figure bronze statue is stored elsewhere. A memorial inscription is engraved on the Coast Guard base:




IN WORLD WAR II A.D. 1941-1945

The storage playground is to be replaced with an upscale Playspace designed by architect Frank Gehry. So far, the Battery Conservancy has raised half of the $10 million needed to do the project, complete with its proposed "green" roof and restroom facilities. Gehry has agreed to donate his design to the cause. When the monuments are returned to the main park area they will be placed around the perimeter and illuminated at night.


Construction Screen, Pier A
Manhattan, July 30, 2013

Looking southeast from inside Robert F. Wagner Jr. Park near the intersection of Battery Place and Little West Street, Battery Park City:

Construction site for the restoration of Pier A, in Battery Park (see: Riding Staten Island Ferry, Pier A, Composite).


Riding Staten Island Ferry


In addition to identifying the boroughs and counties shown, the county names of the waterways are also listed where they appear.

Colgate Clock I
Hudson County, August 8, 2008

Looking southwest near the intersection of Essex Street and Hudson River Waterfront Walkway at Exchange Place, Paulus Hook:

There are two giant Colgate Clocks. The first clock (1906) was originally mounted on top of Colgate's 8-story factory headquarters in Jersey City. It was removed in 1924 and relocated on top of another Colgate factory in Clarkesville/Jeffersonville, IN, which had previously been a state penitentiary. The second clock I (1924, shown here) was identical to the first in shape, but it was 25% larger and had a billboard advertisement attached. It replaced the first clock by being mounted in the same spot on top of the same Jersey City factory until 1983, when Colgate moved out of Jersey City and the building was torn down. The clock and billboard were stationed for the next 18 years in an open lot adjacent to where the factory had stood. The clock was finally moved to its current site on the edge of the river when construction began next door on the Goldman Sachs Tower (2001-04). Due to the "Hudson River No Billboard Law", the oversized billboard attachment was disallowed and subsequently removed. In 2013, the clock was rebuilt with new hands, new timing mechanisms, LED lights and was raised several feet for better visibility. Colgate's Octagon Soap, whose trademark inspired the shape of the Colgate Clocks, is no longer being made.


Pier A, Composite
Manhattan and Hudson County, May 28, 2008 (left)
Manhattan and Brooklyn, January 3, 2011 (right)
Harbor Waterways - New York County and Hudson County

Looking northwest from the Waterfront Promenade inside Battery Park (left), and south from the same promenade as it continues through Battery Park City (right), The Battery:

Pier A Composite (1884-86) is New York's oldest municipal pier. It has been referred to as one of the three points of the Liberty Gateway (the other two being the Statue of Liberty and the tower on top of Staten Island Borough Hall) because it juts out from Battery Park at an angle that appears to point toward the Statue of Liberty (1886-92). But, the reason for the reference is better explained by the fact that it was built right before the statue, and first assumed the role of lookout post for the Upper Bay. The tower and the north dock were used by the Police Department as a station house for their harbor patrol. The rest of the pier was a maps and records house for the Docks Department. The south dock measured over 300 feet and was long enough to receive a sizable vessel. It was occasionally used to welcome visiting dignitaries. After World War I, the tower became obsolete as a lookout post due to the taller buildings being built around the Battery, and in 1919 the lookout windows were closed up and replaced with a 4-sided ship's clock. The clock was installed as a memorial to the 116,000 US Servicemen who died in WW I. That is why there is no other WW I memorial in Battery Park.

Attempts were made over the decades to restore Pier A as its operations changed. In 1959, the Department of Marine and Aviation took over the pier as a headquarters for its fireboats. At that time the Beaux Arts metal work on the exterior of the building was replaced with aluminum siding. Nothing was done to protect the underside of the pier from potential water damage. Hopes were raised in 1977 when the pier was designated a landmark, but the structure remained unchanged for the next 15 years and was closed in 1992 due to its hazardous condition and deteriorated state.

The 3-phase restoration project currently underway to rebuild the pier began in 2008 at a projected cost of $30 million and quickly escalated to $37 million once the extent of the underlying water damage was fully realized. The plan includes an upscale conversion for the first two floors as a seaside restaurant and oyster bar, and leaves the third floor available as a rental space for private functions. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy flooded the work on the first floor with 5 feet of water causing enough damage to set back the cost of the conversion another $4.3 million. Anticipating delays, it is still scheduled to open by Memorial Day 2014.

At Exchange place in Jersey City, the Goldman Sachs Tower (2004) and the Colgate Clock (1924, rebuilt 2013) are both visible in the background of Composite (left). In Composite (right), the Brooklyn horizon in the background is level with the Staten Island Ferry and the ventilator building for the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel, now the Governor Hugh L. Carey Tunnel (1940-50) at Governors Island.


Staten Island 9/11 Memorial
Staten Island and Brooklyn, August 4, 2008
Harbor Waterways - Richmond County and Kings County

Looking southeast from the North Shore Esplanade along Bank Street, St. George:

The 9/11 Memorial (2004) titled "Postcards" by architect Masayuki Sono, was built in honor of the 274 Staten Island residents who died in the 9/11 terrorist attack and the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center. Each victim is memorialized by a small granite plaque bearing his or her name, their place of work on 9/11 and date of birth. Each plaque also includes a flattened profile of their visage resembling a postage stamp. At the tenth anniversary of 9/11, Borough President James Molinaro made mention of the fact that the bodies of over half of the victims from Staten Island were never found, "... their next of kin, their loved ones, didn't receive any remains. This is their cemetery."


Richmond County Bank Ballpark
Staten Island, Hudson County and Manhattan, August 5, 2008
Harbor Waterways - Richmond County, Hudson County and New York County

Looking northeast from inside the ballpark at 75 Richmond Terrace, St. George:

The ballpark is the home of the Staten Island Yankees of the New York-Penn League, founded in 1939. The park opened for its first season 11 weeks before 9/11. The Staten Island 9/11 Memorial is in the background to the left (see: Riding Staten Island Ferry, Staten Island 9/11 Memorial).


St. George Ferry Terminal, Composite
Staten Island and Hudson County, July 21, 2013 (left)
Staten Island, Hudson County, Manhattan and Brooklyn, July 21, 2013 (right)
Harbor Waterways - Richmond County, Hudson County, New York County and Kings County

Looking northwest (left) and northeast (right) from the Staten Island Ferry Terminal Plaza, St. George.

St. George Ferry Terminal I
Staten Island, March 9, 2010

Looking west from Pier 1 at the SI Guy V. Molinari in Pier 2, Staten Island Ferry Terminal, St. George:

St. George became Staten Island's civic center after the five boroughs were consolidated into one New York City in 1898. A new Borough Hall and Ferry Terminal were built together at the same time (1904-06), both designed by John H. Carrère, of Carrère & Hastings architects, who had been a resident of Staten Island for 15 years.

The problem with waterfront terminals is that they are accident-prone and need to be rebuilt more frequently than land-based terminals used for trains and buses. While a proposal was being considered for a much needed $11 million renovation in 1946, the rundown St. George Terminal accidently caught fire and was completely destroyed. The terminal was rebuilt and served the borough another half century until two new structures were built again for St. George and the Whitehall Terminal at South Ferry (both 2005).

Staten Island Borough Hall (1904-06) is a 3-story building on a hill with a double level mansard roof and a clock tower I, left edge. It looks out onto St. George Terminal and the Upper Bay Composite from a high vantage point. Carrère took his design inspiration from 17th century French Renaissance models; but the bulky brickwork and flattened pediments on two sides of the tower (without clocks) resembles the massive pedestal for the Statue of Liberty (1886-92) that lifts the statue from its 11-point star shaped base that once belonged to Fort Wood. The statue's pedestal served as a lookout tower with three cut out windows and an upper terrace on all sides; made more practical by any measure than climbing to the statue's crown for a view of the Harbor. In contrast to the low lying profiles of Fort Wadsworth (17th century), Fort Jay/Columbus (18th & 19th centuries), Castle Williams (1811) and Castle Clinton (1811), which later became the New York Aquarium after 1896 - the towers of Pier A, Statue of Liberty and SI Borough Hall were the three important lookouts for the Liberty Gateway during the turn of the 19th to 20th century.

The ZIM CALIFORNIA (2002) is a cargo ship sailing under the flag of Liberia Composite (left). The cruise ship Celebrity Summit (2001) and the SI Andrew J. Barberi (1981) are in Composite (right). The SI Guy V. Molinari (2005) is docked in maintenance Pier 2 at St. George Terminal I.


Spirit of America, Upper Bay I
Brooklyn and Staten Island, August 7, 2008
Harbor Waterways - Kings County and Richmond County

Looking southeast from the SI Senator John J. Marchi (2005) at the SI Spirit of America (2008), Kings County Waterway.

Upper Bay II
Hudson County, July 27, 2013
Harbor Waterways - New York County and Hudson County

Looking southwest from the Waterfront Promenade, Battery Park:

The keel of the SI Spirit of America (2008) I was built with steel salvaged from the wreckage of the Twin Towers after the 9/11 terrorist attack. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge (1964) designed by Othmar Ammann is in the background.

In II, the Miss Ellis Island Statue Cruise Boat is on the left and the Ed Rogowsky New York Water Taxi is on the right with the Statue of Liberty (1886-92) at far right.


Buttermilk Channel
Brooklyn, August 3, 2008
Harbor Waterway - New York County

Looking east from Yankee Pier, Governors Island:

Buttermilk Channel (foreground) is a tidal strait that runs between Governors Island and Brooklyn, primarily along the shorelines of Cobble Hill and Red Hook. For a century before Brooklyn Bridge (1883) was built, dairy farmers from Long Island used Atlantic Avenue as their main route to the Brooklyn waterfront where they transferred their products onto delivery boats to Manhattan. The crossing at that juncture bypassed Governors Island and became known as Buttermilk Channel for its early use by the dairy industry.

At center is Pier 7 of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. In the background is Downtown Brooklyn with Chase Bank (1993) at MetroTech Center on the left, and the Williamsburg Savings Bank Tower (1927) on the right (see: Downtown Crossings, Brooklyn Streets and Lots, Dental Optical, Fulton Mall I).


Andrew J. Barberi, Harbor Skyline I
Manhattan, August 8, 2008
Harbor Waterway - New York County

Looking northeast from the SI Samuel I. Newhouse (1981) at the SI Andrew J. Barberi (1981) with skyscrapers of Lower Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridge (1883) in the background, New York County Waterway.

Harbor Skyline, Panorama I
Hudson County and Manhattan, August 3, 2006
Harbor Waterways - New York County and Hudson County

Looking northwest from Craig Road North, Governors Island.

Upper Bay III
Hudson County and Manhattan, August 3, 2006
Harbor Waterways - New York County and Hudson County

Looking northwest from Craig Road North, Governors Island.

Harbor Skyline, Panorama II
Hudson County and Manhattan, August 4, 2013
Harbor Waterways - New York County and Hudson County

Looking northwest from Craig Road North, Governors Island.

Harbor Skyline, Panorama III
Hudson County and Manhattan, August 4, 2013
Harbor Waterways - New York County and Hudson County

Looking northwest from Craig Road North, Governors Island:

The oldest operating ferry in the SI fleet is the John F. Kennedy (1965), seen with the Circle Line Cruise in Panorama I. Of the four middle-aged ferryboats, there are two smaller ones that are seldom seen. They are the SI Alice Austen (1981) and the SI John Noble (1981), known as the "Mini Barberis". They are reserved for late night trips and the early morning hours when the ridership is low. The other two vintage ferryboats are the SI Samuel I. Newhouse (1981) and the SI Andrew J. Barberi (1981) Harbor Skyline I. Both boats were built the same year in keeping with the tradition of adding new vessels to the fleet in pairs or in triplicate. The newest in the fleet are three boats from 2005; they are the SI Guy V. Molinari Panorama III, the SI Spirit of America and the SI Senator John J. Marchi Upper Bay I.

The SI Andrew J. Barberi (1981) Harbor Skyline I was commissioned by the city while Ed Koch was Mayor. It was named in honor of Staten Island's finest football coach of all time, Andy Barberi, who attended Curtis High School and died in 1979. Being the largest and most powerful vessel in the fleet was a distinction that was tarnished by the Barberi's alarming service record from the very beginning. At first, the delivery of the Barberi to St. George was delayed several months due to its failure to perform properly in trial runs in the Gulf of Mexico. Then in 1981, on its inaugural trip from St. George to South Ferry, its engine and steering mechanisms failed causing the vessel to drift eastward and run aground at Governors Island. In 1995 and again in 2010, similar incidents occurred where the propulsion system failed to reverse itself upon docking, causing the ferry to crash into its slip at St. George, injuring dozens of passengers both times.

The worst accident at St. George occurred in 2003, when the Assistant Pilot operating the vessel fell asleep at the wheel, or was otherwise incapacitated upon the ferry's approach to the terminal. Also, in breach of a city regulation governing all ferryboats, the Captain aboard ship failed to assign a Co-Pilot in the Pilothouse or have himself at-the-ready to take over in such an emergency. Consequently, the Barberi over shot its slip at full speed and rammed into maintenance Pier 2 splitting its hull and lower deck wide-open, killing 9 passengers instantly, some gruesomely with severed limbs and decapitations. A 10th passenger was pulled from the water, fatally injured and drowned; and an 11th victim died later. Of the 11 passengers total who lost their lives, only 9 were publically named, ie: Joseph Bagarozza, Pio Canini, Vincent Ferrante Jr., John Healy, Darius Marshall, Guillermo Paguay, Louis Robinson, Frank Sullivan and John Valinski. The Assistant Pilot at fault, Richard J. Smith, nearly became the 12th victim as he fled the scene of the accident to his home and attempted suicide by slitting his wrists and shooting himself with a pellet gun. It was later revealed that he also piloted the Barberi during the 1995 crash, adding new speculation that human error may have been a factor in addition to equipment failure, which was the only explanation given for the cause of that accident at the time.

The Harbor skyline repeatedly shows the Goldman Sachs Tower (2001-04) at Exchange Place in Jersey City on the left side, and Lower Manhattan on the right side in Panoramas I, II, and III. At 781 feet tall, the Goldman Sachs Tower exceeds the tallest building in the outer boroughs by 118 feet; that being Citigroup Tower (1989) in Long Island City, Queens (see: Harlem, the East River and Queens, Queensboro at Midtown, Citigroup, Daily Star, Cangro, Saint Mary's, Composite II). The Goldman Sachs Tower is therefore the tallest building in the New York metropolitan area outside of Manhattan, but also has the distinction of not being in a borough. Construction began in 2001 on what was to have been an even taller building, but the events of 9/11 at the World Trade Center gave reason to reconsider those plans and cap the building at 42 floors with a flat roof.

Ellis Island (1900) is in the background of Upper Bay III. The cruise ship Norwegian Breakaway (2013) and the SI Guy V. Molinari (2005) are in Panorama III. The Norwegian Breakaway replaced the Norwegian Jewel (2005) in New York Harbor in 2013. The Jewel has operated positions out of Miami, Seattle, New York, New Orleans and Houston for 9 years (see: Downtown Crossings, West to Jersey City, Pier 84-86, II).


Colgate Clock II
Hudson County and Manhattan, August 4, 2008
Harbor Waterways - Hudson County and New York County of Hudson River

Looking east from the Morris Canal Peninsula in Morris Canal Park, Little Basin, Jersey City:

The second Colgate Clock (1924) was moved to Paulus Hook in 2001 (center). It was fully restored in 2013 (see: Riding Staten Island Ferry, Colgate Clock I). Across the river is the World Financial Center in Lower Manhattan (background).


Guy V. Molinari, Harbor Skyline II
Manhattan, August 3, 2013
Harbor Waterway - New York County

Looking northeast from Carder Road at the SI Guy V. Molonari (2005) and skyscrapers of Lower Manhattan, Governors Island:

The design competition for a model to replace the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center after 9/11 was awarded to architect Daniel Libeskind in 2002. His winning design had a tiered profile with geometric setbacks that resembled the shape of the Statue of Liberty. The upper levels were to be filled with trees and plants as green reaches, which inspired Libeskind's first title for the project, "Vertical World Gardens". The better know name, "Freedom Tower", came later in recognition of the peak height of the building, which was designated at 1,776 feet to correspond in number to the year of America's Independence. By 2006, with pressure and influence from developer Larry Silverstein, the Libeskin design was significantly altered by architect David Childs of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, to coexist with the downtown skyline without resembling the Statue of Liberty. However, the main feature retained from the Libeskin design was the pinnacle height of 1,776 feet, which was accomplished by Childs with a 408-foot antenna (center).

David Childs expressed his concern for a more functional building when he explained his rationale for a simpler sculptural form:

We really wanted our design to be grounded in something that was very real, not just in sculptural sketches. We explored the infrastructural challenges because the proper solution would have to be compelling, not just beautiful. The design does have great sculptural implications, and we fully understand the iconic importance of the tower, but it also has to be a highly efficient building. The discourse about Freedom Tower has often been limited to the symbolic, formal and aesthetic aspects but we recognize that if this building doesn't function well, if people don't want to work and visit there, then we will have failed as architects.

Similarly, the Port Authority chose to change the name of the tower in 2009 to simplify its identity and to establish more universal appeal for the building. Changing the name from "Freedom Tower" to "One World Trade Center" was a self-conscious attempt to buffer nationalistic sentiment with international openness. The name change occurred after the Port Authority signed a 21-year lease with a Chinese real estate company named Vantone Industrial. Vantone plans to build the "China Center" for culture and trade in its 191,000 square feet of rented space on six floors.

The official opening of One World Trade Center (1 WTC) will be in 2014.


Governors Island, Panorama
Brooklyn, Manhattan and Staten Island, July 27, 2013
Harbor Waterways - New York County, Kings County and Richmond County

Looking south and then southwest towards Governors Island from the Waterfront Promenade, Battery Park.

Governors Island I
Manhattan and Staten Island, August 7, 2008
Harbor Waterways - New York County, Kings County and Richmond County

Looking south from the SI Senator John J. Marchi (2005) towards Governors Island, New York County Waterway:

Boat traffic in New York Harbor is far less busy today than it was during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. As a result, there is a greater sense of the expanse of the open waterways of the Upper Bay, especially as experienced while riding the Staten Island Ferry. Still, the range of boat types is various in size and scope. The list of vessels and craft types found in the Harbor today includes – cruise ships, schooners, sailboats, yachts, motorboats and water scooters, kayaks, canoes and paddleboards, tankers, cargo ships, tugboats and barges, fireboats, police boats and national park service boats, coast guard and navy ships, sightseeing and tour boats, water taxis, recreation speedboats, commuter ferries and high speed transports.

From left to right in Panorama are the Clipper City Schooner (1854, rebuilt 1984), Vane Brothers Double Skin 304 Barge and Tug (2007), the Seymour B. Durst New York Water Taxi, (circa 2005-08), the Liberty V National Park Service Ferry (2011) and a private motorboat. In the background (left side) is the midway vent tower for the Governor Hugh L. Carey Tunnel (1940-50, formerly the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel) and the shoreline of Governors Island (left and right sides). Castle Williams (1811) and Staten Island are in the background of I.


Liberty Island I
Hudson County and Manhattan, March 8, 2010
Harbor Waterways - Hudson County and New York County

Looking northeast from the 9/11 Memorial Grove, Liberty Island.

Liberty Island II
Hudson County and Manhattan, April 4, 2010
Harbor Waterway - Hudson County

Looking west from the Circle Line Cruise at the Bay State Liberty Cruise and the Statue of Liberty (1886), Hudson County Waterway:

The 9/11 Memorial Grove I is a small wooded area on the northeast side of Liberty Island dedicated to the remembrance of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and to the lives that were lost that day. It is planted with rows of London Plane trees, which were gifted in part by the Ladies Auxiliary to the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States. London Plane trees were chosen for their strength and durability, but the extreme high winds of Hurricane Sandy destroyed the Memorial Grove in 2012. In preparation for the 127th anniversary of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 2013, the non-profit green industry foundation Project EverGreen, partnered with the National Park Service and the New Jersey Landscape Contractors Association to clean up and replant the Memorial Grove. Ellis Island (1900), the Goldman Sachs Tower (2001-04) in Jersey City, and the skyline of Lower Manhattan are in the background.

Liberty Island, formerly called Bedloe's Island and also known for its century old Fort Wood (1811-1937) is situated in Hudson County Waterway, but is under the jurisdiction of the City of New York. As with other islands in the Harbor and East River, like Governors Island, Roosevelt Island, Randall's and Wards Islands – each one is a part of Manhattan. The difference with Liberty Island is that it is a part of Manhattan set inside the State of New Jersey. The renaming of the island was not official until 1956, which was 70 years after the Statue of Liberty was erected there.


Tug & Barge Lines, I
Hudson County, March 10, 2010
Harbor Waterways - Kings County, New York County and Hudson County

Looking northwest from the SI John F. Kennedy (1965) at the McAllister Sisters Tug (1977) with Bayonne and Jersey City in the background from left to right, Kings County Waterway.

Tug & Barge Lines, Composite
Manhattan and Brooklyn, August 1, 2013
Harbor Waterways - Richmond County, Kings County and New York County

Looking northeast from the Staten Island 9/11 Memorial at the Falcon Tug (1978) left, and the Shawn Miller Tug with barge (1977) right. Manhattan and Brooklyn are in the background, St. George.

Tug & Barge Lines, II
Manhattan, August 1, 2013
Harbor Waterways - Richmond County, Kings County and New York County

Looking northeast from the Staten Island 9/11 Memorial at the McAllister Sisters Tug (1977) left, and the Stephen Reinauer Tug (1970) center, with moored barge. Lower Manhattan is in the background with One World Trade Center (2006-14) in the middle and Brooklyn Bridge (1883) at far right, St. George.


Andrew J. Barberi – Bay, City, Sky
Hudson County, Manhattan, Queens and Brooklyn, August 8, 2008
Harbor Waterways - Richmond County, Hudson County, New York County and Kings County

Looking northeast from the SI John F. Kennedy (1965) at the SI Andrew J. Barberi (1981) with Jersey City, Liberty Island, Manhattan, Bronx (not shown), Governors Island, Queens and Brooklyn in the background from left to right, Richmond County Waterway:

In the sky above the city is a cumulonimbus incus cloud.